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Soul Food in Langston Hughes' 'Simple's Uncle Sam'
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Seminar paper from the year 2010 in the subject American Studies - Culture and Applied Geography, grade: 1,3, University of Wuppertal, course: Cultural Studies: As American as Apple Pie, language: English, abstract: This paper is going to deal with the poet and author Langston Hughes and his stories published under the title Simple's Uncle Sam during the era of Modernism and Postmodernism. I am going to begin with a short biographical overview about Langston Hughes' life. The information used, is taken from the Wikipedia website entry about Langston Hughes (en.wikipedia.org) but can also be found on more reliable websites (poemhunter.com; nathanielturner.com). Since this paper is part of the course 'As American as Apple Pie' which is concerned with the meaning of food scenes in different texts, I will present the topic of 'soul food'. I am going to explain where soul food has its roots and what it exactly is. Further I am going to show what important role soul food or food in general plays in the extracts of Simple's Uncle Sam and how it refers to the ethnical and cultural background of African Americans.

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Stand: 02.07.2020
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The Significance of numbers in 'Beloved'
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Seminar paper from the year 2012 in the subject American Studies - Literature, grade: 1,3, University of Wuppertal, language: English, abstract: Beloved is a novel with many interesting themes which are worth examining. The following paper deals with the significance of numbers in Toni Morrison's Beloved. Numbers play an important role in this novel. The novel was first published in 1987 and is a neo-slave narrative (cf. Palladino 54) written in free indirect discourse. It is about Sethe, a former slave, and her family. Sethe will not deal with her past and the trauma she has suffered during her time in Kentucky on the plantation 'Sweet Home'. She is hunted by the ghost of her baby that she has killed because she did not want her to become a slave. The ghost will only disappear after she has dealt with it and with her past. Numbers play an important role in Beloved. Morrison did not choose them by chance, they all have a meaning in the story of the novel. I want to show the significance they have - by some numbers with reference to the Bible. First, there is an analysis of the overall structure and the numbers of the book, of the three parts and the chapters including the first sentence of all three parts (cf. chapter 2.1). Then the numbers which occur in the novel are examined (cf. chapter 2.2-2.9), after this analysis, there will be an examination of the dedication - which is also a number (cf. chapter 3). The end of the paper is composed of the conclusion in chapter

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Black Identity in Toni Morrison's 'The Bluest Eye'
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Seminar paper from the year 2009 in the subject English - Literature, Works, grade: 2,3, University of Wuppertal, language: English, abstract: The purpose of this thesis is to show the destruction of identity in The Bluest Eye. In order to find out how far Toni Morrison digests her own experiences in her first piece of work, it is important to have a closer insight into her biography. First of all, I will provide the reader with some basic information about the author and genesis of the work in order to find out how far Toni Morrison dwells on her past. It is necessary to reflect on the underlying reasons why Toni Morrison started writing The Bluest Eye, as her motivation reveals the emotional attachment she has to her work. Hence, The Bluest Eye is introduced. The primer depicts the main aspects around the Bluest Eye and how it deals with identity formation and the tremendous problem with the context of beauty. Subsequently, I will give a definition of social identity to lay the foundation and back my argumentation. In this context, the concept of beauty plays a major role. I will illustrate the difficult situation of black people in a dominant white culture and how some black characters in The Bluest Eye are developed as a result of this. After that, I will present a sociological view of this problem and describe how Morrison's characters developed their identities by classifying them into categories. In my conclusion, I will discuss the main character's identities and highlight the differences between the MacTeers and the Breedloves.

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Economics of Natural Disasters and Climate Change
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Master's Thesis from the year 2012 in the subject Economics - Macro-economics, general, grade: 1,3, University of Wuppertal (Schumpeter School of Business and economics), course: VWL, Makroökonomie, language: English, abstract: During past centuries, natural disasters occurred more often in our environment and caused more serious damage worldwide. The Hurricane Irene in the Caribbean and the USA, the floods in Australia, the earthquake in New Zealand and especially in Japan in 2011 had enormous extends concerning the caused loss and damages in the specific regions. Within the past four decades, the frequency of large natural disasters raised three times more. Furthermore, the economic losses - after adjusting for inflation - increased even eight times more compared to the past decades. This also has a great impact on the insurance industry, since the insured losses increase even in a larger amount compared to other factors affected by natural disasters. However, the insurance industry uses in spite of these unfavorable loss trends, a wide range of coverage against disasters such as Cat Bonds to transfer the disaster risk, and to avoid unnecessary expenses. Climate change also plays a big role in the frequently occurring amount of disasters. Since it is still hard to estimate the impacts of future climate changes for the frequency and intensity of natural disasters with its huge losses, new policies such as Green Growth have been introduced for mitigation effects. The purpose of this thesis is to represent and describe the economics of natural disasters due to climate change with its macroeconomic aspects and structural effects. While demonstrating the impacts on natural disasters to a region's economy, it is important to know that many other factors are linked with natural disasters that have an effect on a region's economy. Therefore, after defining the important terms in the first section of this thesis, the scope and costs of natural disasters will be illustrated in chapter 2 for a better demonstration of the disaster events impacts in general. This will start by describing the reasons for climate change to demonstrate in the latter the increasing number of disaster appearances due to the effects of climate change. Different regions will be considered within this analysis, whereas in the following sections only the regions which are economically vulnerable to natural disasters will be taken into account to illustrate the costs of natural disasters........

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On Adjectival Passives in English
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Seminar paper from the year 2010 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 3,0, University of Wuppertal, language: English, abstract: There have been various discussions on verbal passives and adjectival passive constructions. Adjectival passives always have stative interpretations, whereas verbal passives can either have a dynamic or a stative interpretation. The question is whether adjectival passive constructions are supposed to be a type of passive constructions, or merely passives in a derivative sense (cf. Huddleston and Pullum, 2002: 1436f). Before researching the differences between the both passive constructions, the main characterization of passive, in general, should be made clear. Åfarli (1992: 8) provides a brief summary of it: [...] every sentence one might reasonably want to call a passive may be minimally characterized as follows: (22) a. Relative to its active counterpart, the passive sentence is marked with special verb morphology. b. The subject of the active sentence never remains subject in the passive counterpart. This statement is also supported by Emonds (2006: 17) who comments that the stress is laid on the role of the subject phrase and its relation to passive morphology. According to this characterization of passives, it could be asserted that adjectival passives are only a part of a verbal passive construction. Except, it can be proven that adjectives and verbal participles can be distinguished. Emonds (2006: 20) suggests a formula to distinguish between verbal and adjectival passives: a. In adjectival passives, the head [A-en] is present in both LF and PF. b. In verbal passives, [A-en] is absent in LF and present only in PF. The suffix -en refers to the simple past in English but it is also the given form for adjectives, which leads to the ambiguity between verbal passives and adjectival passives. The LF, however, helps us to understand whether a passive has an ongoing (dynamic) or a completed (stative) interpretation. In this paper the main focus is on the differences between verbal and adjectival passives. The following study will show how far adjectival predicatives in a passive construction can be considered as passives. Another aim of this paper is to find out whether adjectives are a derivation from verbs, and whether the derivation is the reason that it is impossible to distinguish them.

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The Role of Women in Lillian Hellman´s 'The Lit...
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Seminar paper from the year 2010 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Literature, grade: 2,3, University of Wuppertal, language: English, abstract: 1. Introduction The following paper deals with the female characters in the play 'The little foxes', written by Lillian Hellmann in 1939. In the United States the role of women in society changed drastically in the 20th century. In the past married women were homebound and dependent on their husbands, but they became active and independent in 1900. The increasing possibilities to work outside the house led to the fact that women became wage- earners. Finally, the women's attitude to life changed dramatically. In the beginning of this paper an overview of the historical background, considering the social role of women in the 20th century, is given. Afterwards, the change of the role of women will be exemplified by the female characters of Regina, Birdie and Alexandra in 'The Little Foxes'. Especially Regina and Birdie can be seen as contrastive examples because they show in an opposite way how to deal with their powerless role in the Hubbard family.

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A critical evaluation of Politeness research in...
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Bachelor Thesis from the year 2011 in the subject English - Miscellaneous, grade: 1,0, University of Wuppertal (Anglistik/Amerikanistik), language: English, abstract: As a way of establishing a general framework of the development of politeness research, I will give an overview of different theories: the first being the conversationalist maxim view, including the work of Grice, Lakoff and Leech; and the second being the face- saving view of politeness, including Brown and Levinson's model. Then, I will investigate how politeness is realised in German and English. For this purpose, I will firstly consider cultural specificities that determine linguistic politeness, examining dimensions of cross- cultural difference as proposed by Juliane House and critically evaluate these dimensions. Secondly, I will look at how politeness is reflected in the realisation of the speech act of request, drawing on results from a contrastive study on politeness markers by Juliane House and Gabriele Kasper. These will subsequently be compared to findings gained in other empirical works. Following the critical evaluation, I will also take a closer look at the significant role of modal particles in the modification of requests in order to account for some of the prevalent linguistic choices observed in the contrastive study. Finally, the paper ends with a summarising conclusion.

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Expansion of Mobile Digital Services: Dynamics,...
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Master's Thesis from the year 2008 in the subject Economics - Macro-economics, general, grade: 1.3, University of Wuppertal, language: English, abstract: At the beginning of the 21st century, information and communication technologies (ICT) play an important role in the globalisation process. Mobile communications market is one of the youngest and most important sectors of ICT and is characterised by significant growth rates across the OECD. Nowadays, thanks to the Third Generation (3G) mobile technologies allowing high data rates one can speak of multiple play in the mobile service sector (voice, data and video). However, as regards mobile market dynamics there are considerable differences even among OECD countries. The aim of this paper is to show the differences and similarities of the expansion of mobile digital services in countries, which have achieved the most significant progress in this sector: Japan, South Korea and EU in general, as well as Germany in particular. Particular attention will be paid to the mobile TV as an emerging technology that is able to change our understanding of mobile digital services. Moreover, taking into consideration the theories of the mobile services, it should be shown how different regulatory approaches in the selected countries affect dynamics of their mobile markets.This paper consists of three parts. The first part deals with dynamics of mobile digital services across the OECD countries including the following issues: development and recent trends in the mobile communications market in general, evolution from 2G (Second Generation) to 3G mobile services, convergence of WiMAX, WLAN and 3G. Furthermore, particular attention will be paid to new technologies allowing mobile television. Finally, the distinctive features of mobile services in Japan, South Korea and the European Union will be considered. In this context it will be very important to show how differences in vertical network relationships in Europe and Japan affect the expansion of mobile digital services.The second part of the paper is theoretical. Here two theories will be introduced and described: the theory of two-sided markets and the theory of network interconnection. These theories contribute to better understanding of the mobile market regulation issues and help to choose an adequate regulation policy.The third part of this paper mentions the most important regulatory issues and problems in the OECD countries and worldwide, particularly as regards mobile television. Further, the chapter will describe different regulatory approaches in the European Union, Japan and South Korea.

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Weizsacker, E: Factor Five
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'As economic, environmental, and security imperatives converge, advanced resource productivity is quickly rising to the top of the global agenda. But let's make no little plans: new technologies, artfully combined via integrative design, can now quintuple the work wrung from energy, water, and other resources. Building on our 1997 collaboration in Factor Four, and cross-pollinating with new findings from around the world, this exciting synthesis combines a powerful efficiency toolkit with farsighted policy insights - vital to ensure that efficiency's gains are not offset but reinforced to create a richer, fairer, safer, and cooler world.'– Amory B. Lovins, Chairman and Chief Scientist, Rocky Mountain Institute, USA, Co-Author of 'Factor Four' 'This book shows once again, even to the most conservative critics, that not only are significant improvements possible, they are profitable, and when coupled with the understanding that reducing environmental devastation is critical, provide a vital message of hope for the future.' – Hunter Lovins, President, Natural Capitalism Solutions, Co-Author of 'Factor Four' 'The fivefold increase of resource productivity described in this book is impressive, but perfectly feasible, and it would give the world a bit more time to learn how to adapt.' –Dennis Meadows, Co-author Limits to Growth and 2009 Japan Prize Laureate 'The exciting thing about Factor Five is the combination of boldness and realism, precisely what is needed to get civilization back onto an economic path that is environmentally sustainable.' –Lester R. Brown, President, Earth Policy Institute 'The potential to reduce emissions by 80% on an economically viable basis is good news for world leaders and their negotiators on climate change.' –Dr R K Pachauri, Chairman, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 'Factor Five is the clearest non-partisan handbook on ecological renaissance available to date and should be read by every policymaker and practitioner.' –Professor Calestous Juma, Harvard Kennedy School 'The arrival of Factor Five couldn't be more timely - or more significant.' – Jonathon Porritt, Founding Director, Forum for the Future, UK 'The mounting concern about climate change has distracted attention from the fact that CO2 emissions are just part of the existential problem facing humanity. We need urgently to reduce our use of ALL the resources, not just fossil fuels. This new book is the best point of departure I know for doing that. The fivefold increase of resource productivity it describes is impressive, but perfectly feasible, and it would give the world a bit more time to learn how to adapt to ecological collapse. The book has two especially important innovations. The authors deal seriously with the rebound effect, and they base their scenarios on a long term trajectory of rising energy prices.' –Dennis Meadows, Co-author Limits to Growth and 2009 Japan Prize Laureate 'Is it possible to imagine a world where we can actually phase out fossil fuels before the climate phases us out? It's now feasible by reading Factor Five.' – Peter Newman, Professor of Sustainability, Curtin University and author of Resilient Cities '[There can be] no sustainable development without a sustainable development of companies. Factor Five provides compelling arguments and examples that sustainable business is achievable and profitable on a large scale and that companies play a key role in creating sustainable development. Factor Five confirms the crucial role of increasing eco-efficiency to foster sustainable development.' – Stefan Schaltegger, Professor of Sustainability Management, Leuphana University, Germany 'The world needs radical eco-innovation to shape an opportunity out of the current crisis. This book provides excellent key examples in a systems perspective. Written by radical thinkers with a unique experience on how change can be managed, this book is a must-reading for both leaders and academics.' –Prof. Dr. Raimund Bleischwitz, Wuppertal Institute, Co-Director 'Material Flows and Resource Management' Professor at the College of Europe, Bruges/Belgium 'Some may have ignored the message of Factor Four 15

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